"Youth in Social Revolution"

Smriti Brichhya

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International Day for the Biological Diversity

Biodiversity Day (22nd May)

On the auspicious occasion of 'The International Day for Biological Diversity Day 2010 and international year of the biological diversity 2010, YONSED in coordination with MoFSC, WWF, WTLCP and YAE with the support of UNDP/GEF/SGP organized a programme entitled as “ Biodiversity is Future and Biodiversity is our future ” on staff college Jawalakehl so as to make a interaction programme so as to enhance the youth activities to celebrate as well as empower themselves where students, , experts, CA members media persons and general people can learn and share their knowledge regarding the importance and need of conservation of biodiversity along with the joint effort of local community which ultimately creates the backbone in the sector of conservation throughout the nation .

INAUGURAL SESSION

Mr. K.P. Acharya (Joint Secretary, MoFSC) delivered welcome speech with the warm welcome of all the invities. Mr. Acharya further pointed out with the religious sensitivity of the people for the conservation of the environment. But still; in the name of development and economic growth, human has already put pressure on natural systems resulting into various global and local environmental problems. Such multidimensional environmental problems also include a catastrophic loss of biodiversity, Mr. Acharya added. Finally, Mr. Acharya concluded by putting his words forward that everyone in the community as well as the youth should now be committed for the conservation of the biodiversity.

WWF Nepal has displayed the Tiger Trapping Methodology documentary (A Documentary Show on “Biodiversity Conservation in relation with the Tiger Trapping Methodology”).

In the documentary presentation it was focused on the different tiger trapping technologies adopted in the different national parks and conservation area located at the different parts of the nation. In this documentary there is appreciation of initiation of implement several conservation actions which will ultimately help to increase the country’s tiger population from an estimated 121 to over 250 adult tigers by the Year 2022 by the Government of Nepal. These pledges were made by the Hon Minister of Forests and Soil Conservation during the Kathmandu Global Tiger Workshop in October 2009 and during the Hua Hin Ministerial Conference in January 2010. Several of these pledges have already been implemented, demonstrating Nepal’s genuine commitment to saving its tigers and leadership towards achieving the global tiger recovery goal. The pledges made by Nepal, and their status are as follows:
· Improve and increase tiger habitat
· Control illegal wildlife trade with commitment from the high authorities
· Apply a new, effective approach to control poaching
· Apply the latest and innovative science in tiger conservation
· Commitment for investment

The documentary addressed the baseline gap in conservation and tiger trapping as
A landscape-wide grid-based occupancy survey combined with extensive camera-trapping conducted in 2008 estimated the adult tiger population at 121; with 91 in Chitwan, 18 in Bardia, 8 in Suklaphanta, and 4 in Parsa. These four protected areas represent the core breeding areas in the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL), which harbors Nepal’s tiger population. High poaching of tigers during the past 5 years has dramatically depressed populations in these protected areas; for instance, a 2005 census using similar methods estimated the tiger population in Suklaphanta at 25 adults and 32-40 in Bardia. And continued killing of rhinoceros indicates that the poaching threats have not diminished and Nepal’s remaining tigers may also be still under threat.

Dr. Ganesh Raj Joshi, Secretary MoE, highlighted the fact that there are large segments of the increasingly urban human population are unaware of the extent to which their material, social and cultural well-being is founded on the rich biodiversity of our planet. Dr. Joshi further added that the services biodiversity provides are the basis of human well-being. Biodiversity not only provides food, fiber, building materials and medicines but is also vital in regulating air and water quality and climate, in protecting us from natural hazards, erosion, and diseases, in recycling waste, and in pollinating crops. Dr. Joshi further pointed out that our belief systems are inextricably linked to the natural world clearly linking cultural and biological diversity. Biodiversity supports essential processes such as soil formation. In short, biodiversity is key to the services provided by the complex ecosystems on which our life supports system and well-being depends. Biodiversity is being lost at an accelerating rate. Clearly identified causes include habitat loss, climate change, invasive species, overexploitation and pollution. Underlying causes for this loss include poor governance, and poor understanding of the importance of biodiversity conservation for society’s well-being, and prosperity in the long term.

TECHNICAL SESSION

Presentation I: “Indigenous Knowledge and Biodiversity Conservation ”
Presenter: Dr. T.B. Shrestha, Ecologist

Dr. Shrestha in his presentation enlightens that indigenous people have largely been contributing to sustainable conservation of biodiversity, especially in in-situ conservation. Dr. Shrestha further added that article 8(j) of the convention of CBD safeguards the knowledge, innovations and practices and encourages the equitable shar tilization of such knowledge, innovat losely relates indigenous and tribal peoples w nservation. Nepal is signatory to both CBD and ILO 169, according to which member countries are obliged to protect rights of Indigenous Peoples and their knowledge. In order to establish rights of es, the dominance of Trade Related Intellectual Property rights should have rights on use of the knowledge.

A drama on Biodiversity Conservation was presented by Silpi Theater, Kathmandu

The artists of Silpli theatre presented a drama focusing on the threats on biodiversity. They have shown the real glimpse of threat in biodiversity of Nepal. People of Nepal are not are serious on conservation of different endangered species.

Song on Biodiversity by Bum Bdr. Karki and Chorus has showed the fabulous performance by the folk song related with the conservation issues of biodiversity in the context of Nepal. They have further address on the illegal poaching and mismanagement of different medicinal plants in the different parts of the nation. Mr. Karki and Chorus further make appeal with government to take action immediately for the biodiversity conservation.

CLOSING SESSION

Mr. Yubaraj Bhusal Secretary, MoFSC chair person of the person began with the slogan ‘biodiversity is our future’ of World Biodiversity Day-2010. Mr. Bhusal argued that Nepal is a country with a huge biological diversity that varies from Terai to Himalayan. Biodiversity maintains an important role for environmental balance, manufacturing medicines, ecotourism and so on. Mr. Bhusal mentioned the reasons for deteriorating biodiversity as over exploitation of biological resources, invasive alien species. Mr. Bhusal appreciated the coordination of the youth throughout the programme.


MEDIA COVERAGE
· Kantipur TV
· Nepal TV
· Avenues TV
· Image Channel
· Sagarmatha TV

OUTPUT
Followings were the outputs of the programme:
i. The programme acted as a platform for the students to know more about importance of biodiversity global as well as local level..
ii. The programme proved as a platform where experts, professionals, professors and students from various field got an opportunity to learn issues of biodiversity conservation.

CONCLUSION

Biodiversity conservation initiatives in country like Nepal which covered mostly by mountain areas have gained impetus in recent years, in part due to alarming rates of biodiversity loss, predictions regarding climate change, and recognition of the global importance of mountains in providing ecosystem goods and services. Global communities and international conventions, notably the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), are addressing these concerns by encouraging the establishment of protected areas and advocating that countries reduce loss of biodiversity by developing effective management approaches, and especially landscape level approaches and regional initiatives. There are also high possibilities to turn the opportunity available for the economic benefit of the country. The opportunities could be utilized for the sustainable use of resources and for the sustainable development of the country.


 World Environment Day

World Environment Day (23rd May- 7th June)

INTRODUCTION

Biological diversity represents the natural wealth of the Earth, and provides the basis for life and prosperity for the whole of mankind. However, biodiversity is currently vanishing at an alarming rate, all over the world. We are, so to speak, erasing nature's hard drive without even knowing what data it contains. 2010 has been proclaimed by the United Nations as the International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) to increase awareness of the importance of biodiversity for sustainable development, and to bring international attention to the causes and consequences of its continued loss. It represents a milestone for preserving the diversity of life on earth.

At present, the conservation of the environment is a subject of common concern. We are talking more about building a new Nepal but without sustainable economic growth and utilization of natural resources, it is not possible. Environment is a multidisciplinary approach, which cannot be conserved by concentrating on only one sector of the society. For the conservation of the natural resources, there must be global alliance. All levels of the society should be made aware of the environmental education and ethics. The need of sustainable development is more strongly felt in a country like Nepal where there exist inadequate policies, lack of proper implementation and monitoring of policy and political influence.

World Environment Day has been celebrated worldwide on 5th June this year with the slogan of Many Species One Planet One Future. This slogan is very relevant at present when the diversity of our planet earth is decreasing due to anthropogenic activities like land use change, deforestation, fires, mono-cropping, and natural effect of anthropogenic activity; the change in climate. We, as an individual of a species among many, have to realize the fact that our future in this only planet is made possible by many species around us. These species are helping us make our future sustainable.

Scientists have no clear idea of how many species -- from algae to blue whales -- live on earth. Estimates are up to 100 million of which only about 1.8 million have been named so far. Humans are but one of those species. Though the exact number is impossible to determine, an unprecedented mass extinction of life on Earth is occurring. Scientists estimate that between 150 and 200 species of life become extinct every 24 hour. There have always been periods of extinction in the planet's history, but this episode of species extinction is greater than anything the world has experienced for the past 65 million years – the greatest rate of extinction since the vanishing of the dinosaurs. This mass extinction is due, in large measure, to humankind's unsustainable methods of production and consumption, including the destruction of habitats, expanding cities, pollution, deforestation, global warming and the introduction of "invasive species".

Biodiversity contributes directly or indirectly to many aspects of our well being, for instance, by providing raw materials and contributing to health. More than 60 per cent of the world's people depend directly on plants for their medicines. Besides raw materials they also provide services. Annually honeybee contributes US$ 8 billion worth service agricultural sector through pollination. Over the past century, many people have benefited from the conversion of natural ecosystems to agricultural land and from the exploitation of biodiversity. Although many individuals benefit from activities that lead to biodiversity loss and ecosystem change, the full costs borne by society often exceed the benefits.

World leaders agreed at a 2002 UN Summit in Johannesburg to "achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth." To achieve greater progress towards biodiversity conservation, it will be necessary – but not sufficient – to urgently strengthen actions on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services.

First National Youth Conference on Environment (3-4th June), Kathmandu:

June 3-4 June, 2010

The Two-day National Youth Conference on Environment was held in Kathmandu on June 3-4, 2010 with its theme Young Researchers: The Pillars of a Prosperous Nepal. The event took place at the Russian Centre of Science and Culture, Kamalpokhari, Kathmandu. The conference was kicked off with a short inauguration program chaired by Er. Ganesh Shah, Chairperson of The First National Youth Conference on Environment. The inauguration program started with seating of the Chief Guest and dignitaries in the dais. The program was inaugurated by the Chief Guest Dr. Jagadish Chandra Pokhrel, Vice Chairman, National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal, watering a flower pot. All the guests and participants were welcomed by Dr. Jaya Kumar Gurung, Member Secretary of the conference. Then a Keynote Speech was given by Dr. Sunil Babu Shrestha with a short presentation that briefed the current environmental issues and challenges, the objectives of the conference and eco-city development in prospect of Food Green City. The program was addressed by the Chief Guest Dr. Jagadish Chandra Pokhrel, Mr Stanislav Simakov, Director of Russian Center of Science and Culture, Mr. Axel Plathe, Country Representative, UNESCO-Kathmandu. Er. Bishnu Bahadur Singh, Chairman of Mitra Kunj thanked all the contributors, guests and participants. The inauguration program was addressed and concluded by Er. Ganesh Shah.

The inauguration session was followed by two parallel technical sessions. There were 15 technical sessions with 4 to 5 presentations, each of 15 minutes followed by discussions. The different themes included: Climate Change, Natural Resource Management, Public Health, Energy, Water Resource Management, Solid Waste Management, Air Pollution and Biodiversity.
Each session was chaired by the expert in relevent field and accompanied by two young reporters. At the end of the first day, a dinner reception was organized where 250 people participated.

Total 214 researchers were registered participants in the conference among which two were from Bangladesh and one from the USA. Total 71 papers including the papers from Bangladesh and the USA were presented in two days. About 70% of the presentations were mostly masters’ thesis research. Others were from professional young researchers in pertinent environmental issues.

There was noteworthy media capture from local and national level media throughout the conference. Media's interest was in the expected outcome of the two-day conference, evaluation of participants and effectiveness of management aspects. Number of news media broadcasted notable coverage in their channels.

Comments and suggestions were also collected from the participants and guests for the further betterment of such as event. There were number of management sub-committees for different management-portfolios for the conference management, under the main organizing committee. Total of 35 volunteers were mobilized with an effective chain of command. Total 16 members of the management committee administered the subcommittees, volunteers and staffs. Conference secretariat was set with all the basic facilities in the meeting hall of Mitra Kunj.

At the end of the conference a closing ceremony was organized. In the closing session, a wrap up presentation was given by Dr. Nawa Raj Khatiwada, a member of the Scientific Committee. The closing ceremony was addressed by three young members of Constitution Assembly namely Mr. Gagan Thapa, Mr. Rajendra Khetan and Mr. Sunil Babu Panth. Other speakers in the closing sessions were Mr. Krishna Raj Bhandari, Senior Advocate, Dr. Punya Prasad Regmi, Executive Director of Nepal Development Research Institute (NDRI), Mr. Bhola Nath Paudyal, Managing Director of Water Engineering and Training Center and Mr. Bishnu Bahadur Singh, Chairman of Mitra Kunj.
For the promotion of quality aspect of research, there was a provision of award for the best research paper. The award was presented by Nepal Development Research Institute (NDRI). There was voting system for all the participants to cast the vote to the best paper in their judgment. From the total votes cast of 202, top 5 winners out of 71 presenters were awarded. The award of certificates and cash prize were distributed in the closing session by the chairperson Er. Ganesh Shah. Certificate was also awarded to all the participants and presenters at the end of the conference. Similarly, there was Research Fellowship announcement for two masters’ students by Water Engineering and Training Center, Dillibazar, Kathmandu of a worth of NRS 1, 15,000 (One lakh fifteen thousand rupees). The two days conference was concluded with a Conference Declaration with full enthusiasm and commitment further.

YOUTH ON ENVIRONMENT KATHMANDU DECLARATION, 2010

On the occasion of World Environment Day,2010 with the theme: Many Species, On Planet, One Future, the First National Youth Conference on Environment was held in Kathmandu, Nepal from 3 to 4 June 2010. The event was organized by Himalayan Alliance for Climate Change (HIMCCA), in collaboration with Russian Centre of Science & Culture & Mitrakunj, an advocacy organization in Nepal.

We, the participants of the First National Youth Conference on Environment unanimously adopt the "Kathmandu Youth on Environmet declaration, 2010".

Recognizing the high priority positioned by the global youth on managing the Environment in promoting the sustainable development and collaborative endeavor required in combating the adverse effects of Climat Change;

Reaffirming the fundamental relationship between environment and the living beings of our planet Earth; and the economic development

Acknowledging the poor understanding of climate change in development countries and deteriorating condition of environment and biodiversity particularly in Nepal and the need to focus strongly on further research work on creating a eco-friendly environment sustainable development.

Emphasizing the overriding importance of socioeconomic development and poverty eradication in the least developed countries particularly on the rural, on privileged, marginalized and vulnerable community, by addressing effective responses, both on adaptation and imitation.

Reiterating the right of every citizen of the global to have a prosperous future, consistent with healthy environment, employment opportunities, sustainable development, economic prosperity and a consistent livelihood.

Recalling the principles of equity, and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities as enshrined in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Appreciating the shared cultural heritage, common histories, geographical proximity and calling for a strong concerted community based, local, regional, and global action

Noting that creating, sustaining, improving and transferring knowledge and knowledgebase through researches and public awareness on environment and climate change are indispensable to deal with the uncertain future that looms in the developing countries;

Resolve that, sound scientific knowledge based education institutions and dedicated teams of scientists play a key role in meeting the present and future challenges of balancing the economic prosperity and environmental management, especially that emanate from increasing uncertainty, and unpredictability.

Finally the whole team has call for the following:

1. Create a Research Fund for the Young Scientists of the South-Asian Region, to carry out studies on environment, climate change, sustainable development, poverty reduction and enhancement of the living standard of the people of this region.

2. Hold an International Conference to advance the science of climate change, and eco-friendly environment in the South Asian region, especially on the mountainous area, once in every three years, technically and financially supported by a group of dedicated international and national donors and hosted in rotation by the countries of this region.

3. Reenergize the existing Youth Networks on environment and climate change with the goal of empowering the future leadership, promoting information exchange, enhancing public awareness, influencing enabling policies and contributing to professional advancement and capacity building in environment and climate change.

4. Suggest modalities for formulating short-term and medium-term perspective plans on environment and climate change, taking into consideration the ongoing Regional, National and State-level Programmes, recognizing the institutional and human resources capacity in the countries, and in full conformity with the regional, national and state-level policies.

5. Formulate pilot projects, on the basis of the short-term and medium-term perspective plans, in collaboration with appropriate regional, national and state-level institutions.

6. Address the knowledge and data gap on environment and climate change processes through adequate monitoring stations and researches.

Organizing committee of conference call upon, with a sense of urgency, on the concerned government agencies and national and international institutions, including NGOs and the private sector, who are committed to and have mandate for the protection of environment, natural resources conservation and sustainable development.

The team urge the key agencies of the South Asian Regions to initiate joint action for implementing the YOUTH IN ENVIRONMENT Kathmandu Declaration, 2010

 


Celebration of World Environment Day (28th May to 5th June) at Rasuwa
Activities:

World environment day was celebrated from June 28th May to -5th at Rasuwa with a grant celebration and in joint collaboration with DDC, DFSCO, LACCoS and WWF Nepal with the support of UNDP/GEF/SGP.

Workshop (4th June 2010):

Workshop was conducted with the DDC along with different stakeholders. On this workshop , Chief guest was CDO and other differnet guest were present in that programme. Program started with the welcome speech of Mr. Aantsering Lama from LACCoS. Mr. Ashok Baniya from WWF- Nepal presented paper on “wildlife conservation issues in Lantang”. Similarly Mr. Binod Paudel from IEAPHA delivered his speech on air pollution issues in Rasuwa. Other different speakers have also enlighten on the biodiversity and climate change issues in the Rasuwa.

Art Competition:
Art competition was held on the 28th May 2010, with the slogan of world environment day 2010 as “Many Specis, One Planet, One Future held on Saprubeshi Rasuwa. On that program there are twelve students form six school have participated. The venue was on the Samewangfek secondary school, Saprubeshi. On that competition Rabi Tamang from Rasuwa higher secondary school secured first position, Sarmila Tamang from the Samewangfek secondary school, in second position, followed by Suman Lama from Gatlang secondary school and consolation prize by Kamala Tamang of Timure lower secondary school.

Quiz Context:
This progrmme was held on the same day and started from 1.00 PM onwards at same place. In this context six schools have participated. On that competition group of Budha Shrestha, Chopema Tamang and Rajan Tamang from Highland higher secondary school, Dhunche secured first position, Sarmila Tamang from the Samewangfek secondary school, in second position, followed by Suman Lama from Gatlang secondary school and consolation prize by Kamala Tamang of Timure lower secondary school.

National Workshop on Biodiversity and our Future:
(Organized to mark the International Year of Biodiversity and World Environment Day-2010, 7th June, Kathmandu)

In this context, Youth Alliance for Environment (YAE) in coordination of SEED-Nepal, YONSED, Go Green Nepal, CHI and HIMCCA jointly organized a workshop together with the support of Ministry of Environment, CDES TU, ICIMOD, UNDP/GEF/SGP and WWF Nepal on 7th June 2010. The title of the workshop was proposed as “Biodiversity and Our Future”. The workshop focused on;
· State of biodiversity and relationship with human well being.
· Threats to biodiversity due to climate change.
· Legal and policy framework for conservation of biodiversity.
· Current practices, loopholes and the major agendas.
· Actions to be undertaken, the actors and their roles.


The workshop had two Keynote presentations.
· Scenario of Biodiversity in Nepal
· Climate Change Regime of Nepal in relation to Biodiversity
Keynote presentation were followed by parallel discussion sessions that has worked for half day to come to some conclusion that is expected to be fruitful for biodiversity protection and ensuring our future for Nepal.

OBJECTIVES

i. To conduct the comprehensive discussion to find out the gap on information in relation to biodiversity, livelihood, income generation and existing threats.
ii. To unite various sectors (NGOs/INGOs/GOs, policy makers, stakeholders, press/media and public as well) to raise the unanimous voice for the sake of biodiversity conservation.
iii. Documentation of prominent issues of biodiversity of Nepal along with recommendations for the improvement / augmentation on institutional framework/policies and in federalism and constitutional building.


PARTICIPANTS OF THE PROGRAM

A total of 63 participants representing GoN, Ministies, INGOs/NGOs, medias, policy makers, CA members and youths participated in the programme.


INAUGURAL SESSION

The programme was begin under the chair of Mr. Sagar Tiwari, Coordinator of Workshop Organizing Committee. Hon. Dr. Jagadish Chandra Pokhrel was chief guest for the program who highlighted on the fact that our traditional practices should be identified and adopted in present context. He also mentioned that only ideas can make us leader, lack of which will make us follower.

Ms. Anne Isabella Blateau, Country Representative, UNDP expressed the need for investment in biodiversity conservation in the context of Nepal. Miss Blateau further marked that the program has been very fruitful for all of the participants as the programme unfolded several facts regarding diversified environmental issues and their ultimate effects. Besides, the programme acted as a common platform where the participants got the opportunity to grab scores of environmental knowledge. Miss Blateau wished successful completion of the program.

Dr. Ghanashyam Gurung, Country Program Director, WWF Nepal expressed happiness seeing the youths in conservation frontlines. He also talked about the areas yet to be explored, researched and future possibilities the country can achieve if the biodiversity resources, utilized properly. He also wished for the successful completion of the workshop and hoped the outcome will be a major resource book in the sector of biodiversity conservation.

Prof. Dr. Bidur Upadhyaya, CDES-TU; Dr. Dinesh Bhuju, NAST; and Dr. Nakul Chhetri, ICIMOD were also seated as guest in inaugural session.

TECHNICAL SESSION

During the workshop Dr. Bhuju in his presentation “Nepal’s RICH Biodiversity Rhetorics and Realities” discussed about confusion that prevails in Nepal regarding biodiversity. He shed light that Nepal is not among the richest countries in species biodiversity rather she have uniqueness that other countries do not have.

Dr. Chhetri in his presentation “Impact of Climate Change on Biodiversity in the Eastern Himalaya” said that Nepal’s topographical variation do not allow us to predict our future climate using models accepted in other parts of world and more monitoring stations are needed.

WORKING SESSION

After the technical session the discussions were started focused on the three major key issues as
· State of biodiversity
· Threats to biodiversity and
· Institutional framework.

In this session the participants worked in six sub-groups to identify issues, gap, and best recommendation for three thematic areas. Sub-groups worked on biodiversity and livelihood, biodiversity and income, climatic threats to biodiversity, non-climatic threats to biodiversity, policy and institutions, and federalism and constitution building.

OUTPUT

The following are the output of the workshop.

i. Helped to find out the gap on information in relation to biodiversity, livelihood, income generation and existing threats.
ii. Created a platform unite various sectors (NGOs/INGOs/GOs, policy makers, stakeholders, press/media and public as well) to raise the unanimous voice for the sake of biodiversity conservation.

CONCLUSION
The following conclusions were drawn after the discussion in different thematic areas

• Due to low dietary variation many species have not found their place in our agricultural land so recommendation is made to aware people on the value and role of dietary variation in biodiversity conservation.

• Income generating activities like tourism have put pressure on already marginalized ecosystems. High rate of usage of timber has affected ecosystems on which tourism stand, and use of exported products in and around protected area has dominated local products flourish. Use of alternative source of energy and local products were recommended for protecting biodiversity.

• Change in climate has increased possibility of extreme events like flood including GLOF and drought. Lack of information of possibility of such extreme events has added risk in society. The sub-group recommended more early warning systems and development of evacuation mechanism.

• Mass encroachment of forested areas both due to political and non-political region was identified as one of the major non-climatic threat. Besides tendering of wetlands by local government to private parties have decreased resilience capacity of wetlands. The sub-group recommended to offer job oriented resettlement rather than land oriented resettlement programs to refugee and land less people.

• Lack of revenue from environmental sector was identified as one major problem in low-level investment in this sector; eco-taxing for sub-sectors dependent on environment (taxing hydropower, tourism, energy sector etc) has been recommended that will generate revenue, sufficient investment and increase attention of government to this sector.

• Shearing of ecological regions and protected areas by more than one parallel authority will create conflict and increase overharvest of resources. This will invite tragedy of these common resources. The sub-group recommended that the state division be done according to ecological region. They also mentioned that state boundary should run north south for easing eco-region and biodiversity conservation. This will also equal burden of cost-benefit, as terai will face more cost of flood.